Gorton Pantograph Engraving Machines

Mostly the P1-2 Pantomill

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1. Acknowledgment

Most of the items listed here are not really "here" at all; they're just links over to Richard Gorton's www.gorton-machine.org site. That site collects a wealth of Gorton technical and historical information (Gigabytes of it), and all Gorton users owe him a great debt of gratitude for preserving and presenting it.

A very few of the items here are ones that I have digitized myself.

2. Introduction

[TO DO: Have full-size single-page scans done of the fold-out drawings in 1385-E and 1385.]

Figuring out the Gorton documentation can be confusing. Although the company did employ a four-digit "form number" to identify each document uniquely, sometimes it's hard to know which forms you need.

For example, it appears that at its introduction around 1960 the P1-2 had no manual. My own machine seems to have been shipped with a version of an earlier manual, Form 1385-E, which covered a wide variety of machines. Although later a P1-2 manual did appear (with much poorer "production values"; it is basically a typescript), my own machine was not updated with that manual. Perhaps the best manual for this particular machine was not published by Gorton at all but instead by the US Army. However, the earlier Form 1385 contains useful usage information not present in the manuals specifically for the P1-2.

Moreover, to realize fully the capabilities of the machine the manual really should be used in conjunction with various advertising brochures which illustrate several parts and with various booklets of example work which illustrate what the machine can do. These often covered an entire range of machines, so it can be hard to know in advance which is relevant to one's own machine.

At present I have only a Gorton P1-2 "Pantomill" machine, so this Notebook collects links to (and sometimes reprints) literature appropriate for that machine. In addition, just because I've an interest in the subject, there is a short section identifying Gorton matrix engraving machines .

Contents:

A pantograph engraver needs well-formed sharp cutters, so see ../../../ Machine Shop -> Cutting Tool Forming and Sharpening Notebook, and more particularly, within that, Gorton Cutter Grinding Machines.

See also, elsewhere at CircuitousRoot, the Notebook on the Gorton P1-2, s/n 41,693, at CircuitousRoot and the Notebook on the Gorton 375 Cutter Grinder at CircuitousRoot.

3. P1-2 / 3-U Pantograph Manuals

[click image to read at The Internet Archive]


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US Army TM 9-3417

Operator, Organizational, Direct Support and General Support Maintenance Manual Including Repair Parts List for Engraving Machine, Pantograph Model P1-2 (3417-00-973-9928) Lars Machine, Inc. US Department of the Army Technical Manual TM 9-3417-218-14&P. (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office [for Headquarters, Department of the Army], April, 1984.) This is US Army operator's manual for the P1-2 as manufactured by Lars Machine, Inc. (successors to Gorton). Because it is illustrated with line drawings rather than photographs, it is much clearer than the Gorton Form 2007 (see below). Because it is an official US federal government publication printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office, it is in the public domain. The link here is to a digitization I did of an original paper copy.

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Form 2007. P1-2 Manual

Maintenance & Replacement Parts Manual [for the] Gorton P1-2 Two-Dimensional Pantomill . (undated, probably 1960s). While this is the "official" manual for the P1-2, it is simply a typescript illustrated with photocopies. The manual for the earlier machines, Form 1385 (see below), is still a useful adjunct.

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for this Form.

[click image to read at The Internet Archive]


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Form 1385. Instruction Book & Parts Catalog

[TO DO: Have full-size single-page scans done of the fold-out drawings.] Pantograph Instruction Book and Parts Catalog: For Standard Type Pantograph Machines . (1935) This is the basic manual used by Gorton for several models of pantograph engravers. It covers the model 3-U, but not its successor, the P1-2. However, the similarities between machines make it generally useful for the P1-2. The version here is the original edition from 1935. For a more comprehensive edition see either Revision F online at www.gorton-machine.org or Revision E, below.

The original version (1935), and revisions A (1938), B (1940), C (1942), D (1945), and F of this manual are online at http://www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html. Additionally, I have digitized my own copy of the original version of this manual and put it online at The Internet Archive (the icon here links to that version).

[click image to read at The Internet Archive]


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Form 1385-E. Instruction Book & Parts Catalog

[TO DO: Have full-size single-page scans done of the fold-out drawings.] Pantograph Instruction Book and Parts Catalog: For All Pantograph Engraving Machines . (1950) This is the basic manual for all Gorton pantograph engravers prior to the "Pn-d" (e.g., P1-2) re-engineering of the product line circa 1954. However, the similarities between machines make it generally useful for the P1-2 and, as noted earlier, this was in fact the manual supplied by Gorton with my P1-2 in 1961.

Revisions A, B, C, D, and F of this manual are online at http://www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html. Additionally, I have digitized my own copy of Revision E of this manual and put it online at The Internet Archive (the icon here links to that version). The printing code on the back cover indicates that this particular copy was printed in November 1956.

This manual (1385-E, at least) also includes information on the Gorton 375-2 Cutter Grinder and on cutter shapes and their grinding.

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Drawing 7561. Reduction Formula

"Formula for Obtaining Special Reductions from 1 to 1 to 2 to 1 On Engraving machines, Numbers {1D, 1J, 3D, 3J, 3Z." Although this drawing does not cover the 3U (= P1-2, more or less), it is still of interest.

See www.gorton-machine.org/machines/panto_reduction_22x17_1930/index.html for this Drawing.

4. Pantograph Engraving Machine Catalogs

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Form 933. Engraving Machines (1925)

Gorton Patent Engraving Machines. (1925) This catalog predates the 3-U and P1-2, of course, but it is interesting both to see the machines from which the later pantograph engravers evolved and to see some of the accessories offered with the earlier machines.

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for this Form.

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Form 1321. The New Gorton Pantograph (1935)

The New Gorton Pantograph Machines, Standard Type. (1935) This catalog predates the P1-2. It covers the 3-U (evolved later into P1-2) and 3-Z (evolved into P2-2) pantographs, and mentions the 375-1 and 265-4 Cutter Grinders.

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for this Form.

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Form 1580-A. Pantograph Engraving Machines

(1940) A general catalog of Gorton pantograph engraving machines of (approximately) 1930/1940s vintage. The 3-U and 3-Z two-dimensional machines, and the 3-B and 3-L three-dimensional machines. Also brief mention of the 3-F (a smaller capacity version of the 3-U), the Large Gap 3-U, the 3-K Matrix Machine, and the 3-S Die Cutting and Profiling Machine.

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for this Form.

Note: Not all versions of Form 1580 concern the entire line of pantograph engraving machines. Form 1580-G, for example, concerns only the P2-3 three-dimensional machine.

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Form 1580-?. [3-U Extract]

An extract of pages 4 and 5 from an unidentified revision of Form 1580 (or at least I presume it is; it appears to be) showing the Model 3-U. It must postdate 1580-A because the Form Number for the illustration of the 3-U machine is 1356-F while 1580-A employs photo 1356-D. But it must predate the introduction of the P1-2, of course, as it shows the 3-U. This extract is online at: http://www.normanmachinetool.com/products/07_22_10_GORTON%203U%20PANTOGRAPH%20ENGRAVER.pdf

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Form 1580-I. Tracer-Controlled Pantograph Engraving Machines

(1954) A general catalog of Gorton pantograph engraving machines introducing the re-engineered "Pn-d" models (e.g., the P1-2 is described as new). Covers the P1-2 (replacing the 3-U), 3-Z, and P3-2 two-dimensional machines and the new P1-3 three-dimensional machine. At this point the P1-2 is still called a "pantograph engraver" and only the P3-2 is called a "pantomill." The copyright date on this catalog is 1954, but the printing code on the last page probably indicates that it was printed in February 1956.

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for this Form.

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Form 1580-N. Tracer-Controlled Pantomill Engraving Machines

(1954) This is substantially the same as 1580i (see above), save that it is printed in blue and all machines are now called "pantomills." The copyright date on it is still 1954, but the printing code on the last page probably indicates that it was printed in December 1960.

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for this Form.

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Form 1580-R. Tracer-Controlled Pantomill Engraving Machines

(1954) Although it still bears the date "1954" (its printing code may indicate a printing date of July 1966), this catalog contains the full "Pn-d" series of machines: P1-2, p2-2 (replacing the 3-Z), & P3-2 two-dimensional machines, and the P1-3 & P2-3 three-dimensional machines. Also information on the Graduating Machine 687-3, forming guides for semi-3-D work on 2-D machines, and the 375-4 Cutter Grinder.

Form 1580-S is an undated revision with additional advertising for N/C contour milling machines. It is by Kearney & Trecker, so it must date from between 1967 and 1974.

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for this Form.

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Form 1655. Condensed Catalog

A condensed general catalog of all Gorton products (not just pantographs, but also milling machines, duplicating machines, and automatic screw machines). Produced in several editions over several decades. For the user of pantograph engravers, it isn't as useful as the more specific Form 1580 catalogs. It does, though, give a better view of the entire range of Gorton products.

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for this Form.

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Form 2070. Gorton Guide Book

(1946) An "executive summary" of the principles of tracer-controlled machining. Nicely done.

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for this Form.

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Form 2070a. Applications of Tracer Control

(1951) A revision of 2070, above. Still very high-level.

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for this Form.

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Form 2703-N. Price List (P1-2, 1971)

Price lists for old machines are important not because one can order from them but because they specify what was available and what constituted which assembly.

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for this Form.

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Form 2941-I. Price List (Pantomill Electrics, 1971)

Price list for the electrical equipment supplied with "Pantomill" pantograph engraving machines.

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for this Form.

5. Auxiliary Catalogs

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Form 1309. Copy Type Catalog (1930s/1940s)

The letterform patterns used for engraving text are called "copy type." Form 1309 in its various revisions is the Gorton catalog of copy type. Title: Copy Catalog (for original edition, 1934) or Gorton Master Copy Type for All Pantograph Machines (for editions 1309-C (1947), 1309-D (copyright 1947, printed 1949), or 1309-E (copyright 1947, probably printed 1951). Revisions from at least 1309-C include specification of depth of copy type.

This Form seems to have been succeeded by 1956 by Form 2720 ( Small Tools and Accessories Including Master Copy Type), see below .

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for these Forms. This source also reproduces Form 1316, a 1934 Price List for copy type.

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Form 1317. Accessories Catalog (1930s/1940s)

This catalog went through at least 14 versions, from the original in 1934 through (at least) 1317-M in 1949. Its title varied: Accessories for Gorton Milling & Pantograph Machines[;] Also for Similar Machines of Other Makes (original 1934 edition). Cutters, Grinders, Accessories (1317-A, 1937). Accessories, Cutters, Grinders (1317-B, 1940; 1317-G (copyright 1940 but printed 1946) 1317-L, 1949, 1317-M (copyright 1949 but printed 1956)).

This Form seems to have been succeeded by 1956 by Form 2720 ( Small Tools and Accessories Including Master Copy Type), see below .

Note: the accessories shown in the 1925 Form 933, a general catalog of Gorton Patent Engraving Machines , are also interesting.

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for these Forms.

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Form 2720. Accessories / Copy Type (1950s)

Small Tools and Accessories Including Master Copy Type. This seems to be the successor to Form 1317 (Accessories) and Form 1309 (Copy Type), for which see above. The gorton-machine.org site has only an undated cover for the original revision. As present on that site: The 2720-A revision was copyright 1956 but printed in 1957. 2720-B was copyright 1956, but printed in 1959. 2720-C bears no copyright date but was printed in 1961. The latest version at gorton-machine.org is 2720-G. It is by Kearney & Trecker, so it must date from between 1967 and 1974.

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for these Forms.

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Form 1329. Accessories Price List

Price List for Accessories Catalog 1317-A (Form 1329-B, effective July 15, 1937).

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for these Forms. 1327-B is included in the scans of 1317-A.

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Form 2656. Price List (Small Tools & Accessories)

2656-A (1957-03-20). 2656-D (1959-03-01). 2656-P (1971-04-01).

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for this Form.

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Form 1408. Cutters

New Gorton Cutters & Accessories for Die & Mold Cutting (1936) Also some collets.

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for this Form.

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Form 1370. Samples of Work

Form 1370, Samples of Work (1935) or 1370a (1937).

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for these Forms.

6. Installation Instructions

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Drawing EE-61

"Low Voltage Control Panel." 1955-06-13. This drawing seems to have been used initially with a machine on 1960-10-18. It was re-used with P1-2 s/n 41,693 as supplied to Barber-Colman of Rockford, IL in 1961 (and put inside the electrical box of that machine, along with EE-61, Rev. A).

I stitched this drawing together by hand from four scans. The stitching is visible, but doesn't affect the information in the drawing.

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Drawing EE-61, Revision A

"Low Voltage Control Panel." 1955-06-13. Revision A, 1961-01-12. Stamped Jan 25, 1961. This print was supplied in two copies with Gorton model P1-2, s/n 41,693 to Barber Colman, Rockford, IL. One copy (the one scanned here) was placed with the manuals for the machine. Another copy (not scanned, but identical except for oilstains) was placed in the electrical box of the machine along with a copy of EE-61 [original version]).

I stitched this drawing together by hand from four scans. The stitching is visible, but doesn't affect the information in the drawing.

7. Specific Accessories and Applications

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1:1 Direct Copying for 3-U & 3-Z

Gorton "Form 2538-DS," reproduced on www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html, is a set of photographs and a page of text describing the 1-to-1 Direct Copying Attachment for the 3-U and 3-Z machines.

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Elliptical Trammel

Gorton "Form 2169," reproduced on www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html, is a pair of photographs of an elliptical trammel constructed as a "pattern" to generate ellipses at the cutter. Very, very cool.

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Micrometer Downfeed

Gorton "Form 2702-DS," reproduced on www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html, contains two photographs and a brief identification of Gorton Micrometer Down Feed p/n 1242-1 for the P1-2 and 3-U pantographs.

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Spherical Forming Guide

Gorton "Form 2995," reproduced on www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html, shows the use of a spherical Forming Guide to allow a two-dimensional pantograph engraver to engrave on a ball.

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Microscope and Cutter Grinder

Gorton "Form 3180," reproduced on www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html, is a pair of photographs of the attachment of a binocular microscope to a Cutter Grinder.

8. Specifications and Reverse Engineering

8.1. Gorton "Taper Shank" Taper

The 3-U and P1-2, and some other Gorton machiens, employ two kinds of tapers in their spindles: a self-holding or "locking" taper which takes a Gorton "Taper Shank" cutter directly and the Gorton "Panto-Collet" (nut-retained) taper (see below). Taper Shank spindles and Panto-Collet spindles are unrelated and not mutually compatible; a Taper Shank cutting tool will not fit a Panto-Collet spindle, and a Panto-Collet collet will not fit a Taper Shank spindle.

To the best of my knowledge, no official specification for the "Taper Shank" taper is known. It has, however, been measured with some care (on a Moore jig borer, no less) by Steve Marquess and reported in the Gorton-Engravers Yahoo! group (message No. 542, 2008-02-01): 1/2 inch per foot.

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US Patent 1,935,555

This patent describes the Gorton tapered cutter design, but does not specify the actual taper.

8.2. Gorton "Panto-Collet" Taper

This is the non-locking taper for a nut-retained collet used as an alternative to the "Taper Shank" (locking) spindle taper (for which see above).

[I do not know what this taper is.]

9. Gorton Matrix Engraving Machines

Gorton did develop several machines specifically for matrix engraving.

The Gorton No. 1-A Matrix Engraving Machine is featured in Form 933, Gorton Patent Engraving Machines (1925) . The distinguishing feature of this machine is the provision of Tool No. 237-1 Matrix Cutter Head which allows the spindle to be removed and the cutting tool to be ground in-place in the spindle. This is the critical innovation that Benton brought to matrix engraving in the 1880s.

(Aside: Gorton supplied either the "No. 1-A Engraving Machine" or, confusingly, the "No. 1-A Matrix Engraving Machine." The latter consisted mostly of the application of the Tool No. 237-1 Matrix Cutter Head to a 1-A machine, but this was only done at the factory; Gorton would not (so the catalog says) supply the Cutter Head for application to existing 1-A Engraving Machines.)

It is interesting that the work shown for this machine is the engraving of Graphotype punches.

The No. 1-A is adapted to flat work. The same Catalogue shows the No. 1-G Engraving Machine and the No. 1-G Matrix Engraving Machine, adapted to "concave, convex, and spherical surfaces generally." It employs the Tool No. 236-1 Matrix Cutter Head.

The No. 1-G Matrix Engraving Machine was succeeded by the No. 3-G Matrix Machine (a variation of the standard 3-G machine). see Form 1243, "Domestic Price List" effective November 1, 1930 (or 1243b, Aug. 1, 1932).

By 1931, the 3-G was succeeded by the 3-K Precision Matrix Machine (which looks utterly magnificent). See Form 1243e, "Domestic Price List," effective August 15, 1936. The 3-K is shown in Gorton Form 1242, No. 3-K Precision Matrix Machine (1931). Its work is shown in Gorton Form 1370. Samples of Work . (1370 (1936) p. 8, or 1370-A (1937), p. 10.)

Aside from the special Matrix Engraving spindle assemblies, there seem to have been other accessories designed for punch or matrix making:

See www.gorton-machine.org/forms/index.html for these Forms.


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