Pearl No. 11 Roller, Core, & Wheel (Truck) Data

Golding Parts Nos. 70 & 71

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In this Notebook I'll present the surviving data for Improved Pearl No. 11 Inking Rollers and their Cores, Brayer Rollers and their Cores, and Form Roller Wheels (i.e., Trucks) (which are the same for both Inking and Brayer Rollers).

Thanks are due to Stephen O. Saxe for having preserved the original Golding & Co. drawings and tables from which these data come.

For a modern compatible design, see the Improved Pearl No. 11 Compatible Form Roller Wheel Design Notebook.

N.B., The use of the term "truck" or "roller truck" with regard to a Pearl is a modern convention. The Golding & Co. name for them was "Form Roller Wheels."

1. Distinctive Features

The Improved Pearl No. 11 differs from the original Pearls Nos. 1, 2, and 3 in several ways, one of which is the incorporation of a "brayer" roller to transfer ink from a full-length ink fountain to the ink disk.

Additionally, at various times the No. 11 was furnished with one of two incompatible versions of the Inking Rollers and Brayer Roller Cores and Form Roller Wheels. These versions were designated "O.S." and "N.S." in the Golding engineering documentation. These "O.S." and "N.S." designations (presumably for "Old Style" and "New Style") have nothing at all to do with the revision of the original Pearl into the Improved Pearl.

Finally, the No. 11 O.S. roller equipment lacks the pins in its Roller Cores and corresponding slots in its Form Roller Wheels to key the Cores to the Wheels. The No. 11 N.S. roller equipment does have pins in the Roller Cores and slots in the Form Roller Wheels.

1.1. Brayer Roller

The Improved Pearl No. 11, as designed, has three rollers. The bottom roller is an ordinary Inking Roller; it rides in its own roller hook. The middle roller is also an ordinary Inking Roller; it rides in one side of a set of T-shaped roller hooks. The top roller is a "Brayer Roller" riding in the other side of the T-shaped hook. This T-shaped roller hook is pivoted at the intersection of the 'T', allowing each roller on it to find its own level.

For the Improved Pearl No. 11, all three rollers use the same Roller Cores and have the same Form Roller Wheels, but the Inking Rollers are 1 1/2 inches in diameter (for composition rollers) while the Brayer Roller is only 1 1/4 inches in diameter. The Form Roller Wheels for both are 1 3/8 inches in diameter. The Brayer Roller does not participate directly in inking the form; it is used only for transferring ink from the ink fountain (if present) to the ink disk.

To understand the action of this mechanism, start at a point midway in the printing cycle, with previously inked rollers at the very bottom of their travel (just as an impression is taken). Assume that the press is fitted with an ink fountain.

As the rollers rise past the form, the two regular Inking Rollers contact the form and ink it (just as they did in their downward travel, too). The smaller-diameter Brayer Roller does not contact the form at all. The Form Roller Wheels (trucks) riding on the rails establish the distance between the form and the Inking Rollers and Brayer Roller.

As the Inking Rollers and Brayer Roller rise up onto the ink disk, all three contact and roll along the ink disk. They are held directly against the ink disk by their roller hooks; the Form Roller Wheels do not particpate in this stage. The T-shaped roller hook pivots slightly to allow both the middle Inking Roller and the Brayer Roller to contact the ink disk.

As the rollers reach the top of their travel, the Form Roller Wheels (trucks) of the Brayer Roller engages a set of rails and begins to ride up off the ink disk. While still rolling, it contacts the cylinder of the ink fountain and ink is transferred from the fountain to the Brayer Roller. The two Inking Rollers just continue to roll on the ink disk.

The remainder of the cycle is the opposite. As the rollers start down, the Brayer Roller disengages the ink fountain and starts to roll again on the ink disk. As it has been charged with ink, it transfers this new ink to the ink disk. All three rollers continue down the ink disk; the ink rollers picking up new ink along the way. Inking the form is done only by the two Inking Rollers, not the Brayer Roller.

The ink fountain is of course an optional feature of the press; many modern users do not use it. If an ink fountain is not being used, then the brayer roller would serve no purpose. It cannot be removed (as that would upset the balance of the T-shaped roller hook). But if all three rollers are made the same (inking) diameter, then the press can be operated without an ink fountain as a three-roller press. Since in the No. 11 all three rollers use the same Roller Cores and Form Roller Wheels, no change is necessary in Cores/Wheels for this style of operation; all that is required is a third roller cast to inking diameter.

1.2. O.S. vs. N.S. Form Roller Wheels

At some point Golding changed the Roller Cores and Form Roller Wheels for both the Inking Rollers and Brayer Rollers for the Improved Pearl No. 11. (Similar changes were made for the Improved Pearl No. 8 (but not the Improved Pearl No. 14) and for the Jobber No. 18. It would appear from the Golding & Co. 1898/1911 "Form Roller Wheel" drawing that this change was not made on any other Golding presses.)

The "O.S." equipment Roller Cores (which are the same for both Inking Rollers and Brayer Roller) have end diameters of 5/16 inch. These slip into a Form Roller Wheel with a 5/16 hole and two outside diameters (1 3/8 over the rails and 9/16 in the roller hooks) much like all other Pearls.

The "N.S." equipment Roller Cores (again, the same for both Inking Rollers and Brayer Roller) have end diameters of 3/8 inch. These slip through a different style of Form Roller Wheel with a 3/8 inch hole in it and only one outside diameter (1 3/8 inch over the rails). This N.S. Form Roller Wheel is basically a disk with a hole in it. The Roller Core itself rides directly in the roller hooks.

Both styles bear the same Golding & Co. part number, 71. This no doubt made ordering interesting and relieved monotony at the customer service desk.

1.3. Pins and Slots

According to the Golding & Co. engineering drawing "Form Roller Wheels" (1898), the Form Roller Wheels for the Improved Pearl No. 11 O.S. lack the slots necessary for keying the Wheels to the Roller Cores. This is confirmed by the Golding drawing/table "Cast Roller & Roller Core Data," which shows no pins for the corresponding Roller Cores.

Both documents show the Improved Pearl No. 11 N.S. to have slots and pins.

2. Data for Ink Rollers, Brayer Rollers, and their Cores

Note: Golding drawing "Form Roller Wheels" (1898) and drawing/table "Cast Roller & Roller Core Data" indicate that while the No. 11 O.S. and No. 11 N.S. roller equipment variations had different core sizes, within each O.S./N.S. variation the Inking Roller Cores and Brayer Roller Cores were the same size.

The Inking Roller and Brayer Roller core for an Improved Pearl No. 11 is Golding part no. 70. It is described in a Golding & Co. combined drawing/table "Cast Roller & Roller Core Data," which presents data for many models of Golding Jobber, Pearl, and Official presses. This undated document has been preserved by Stephen O. Saxe.

In the two drawings below, I've re-drawn the Inking Roller Core and Inking Roller (CRD-5) and Brayer Roller Core and Brayer Roller (CRD-6) from this document (drawing it/them to correct relative scale) and added the dimensional data from the table in the original. It is all rearranged from the original, but all of (and only) the original information is present; nothing has been added.

The Inking Roller diameter specified in the original table is 1 1/2 inches. Discussions online have suggested that this is indeed the correct diameter for composition rollers for this press using 1 3/8 inch trucks; the softer composition rollers are indeed of greater diameter than the trucks. The consensus online is that rubber rollers, being harder, should be the same diameter as the trucks. However, I've also spoken with a very experienced retired printer who insisted that roller diameter should in general be 0.020 inch less than the trucks. You will have to draw your own conclusions.

In the Golding & Co. drawing/table "Cast Roller & Roller Core Data," the pin in the Roller Core used to key it to the Form Roller Wheel is identified as 'G'.

In this table, it is not specified for the Improved Pearl No. 11 with (what can be identified as) O.S. roller equipment. It is specified for the Improved Pearl No. 11 with (again, what can be identified as) N.S. roller equipment.

The 1898/1911 Golding & Co. engineering drawing "Form Roller Wheels" confirms this: the Improved Pearl No. 11 with (explicitly identified) O.S. roller equipment does not have a slot in the Form Roller Wheels to accept a pin, while the Improved Pearl No. 11 with (again, explicitly identified) N.S. roller equipment does.

(N.B., in "Cast Roller & Roller Core Data," the Improved Pearl No. 8 with O.S. roller equipment, and all models of the Official, also lack the pin on their Roller Cores.)

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CircuitousRoot Drawings Nos. CRD-5 & CRD-6. The images above link to PDFs created from the CAD drawing. Here are the DXF-format CAD sources: crd-5-pearl-no-11-roller-os-original-data.dxf crd-6-pearl-no-11-roller-ns-original-data.dxf In my experience the PDF prints well enough, but if you have the ability to read and print a DXF file that will be slightly crisper and more likely to be the size as drawn.

3. Form Roller Wheel Data

The Inking Roller and Brayer Roller Form Roller Wheel for an Improved Pearl No. 11 is Golding part no. 71. It is described in a Golding & Co. engineering drawing and table "Form Roller Wheels" originally dated Oct. 1898 with revisions on 1906-04-11 and 1911-06-25. This document has been preserved by Stephen O. Saxe. His original, an ozalid/diazo copy of a previous original, was in damaged condition as acquired. He has done some fine digital restoration of it, and it does not appear as if any information pertaining to the No. 11 Pearl has been lost.

The drawings below show two revisions for this Form Roller Wheel, designated "O.S." and "N.S." (presumably for "Old Style" and "New Style"). Both have the same part number (71), but they are incompatible designs.

Here is a redrawn version of the drawing for Golding p/n 71 O.S.: [TO DO]

Here is a redrawn version of the drawing for Golding p/n 71 N.S.: [TO DO]

CircuitousRoot Drawings Nos. CRD-7 & CRD-8. The images above link to PDFs created from the CAD drawing. Here are the DXF-format CAD sources: In my experience the PDF prints well enough, but if you have the ability to read and print a DXF file that will be slightly crisper and more likely to be the size as drawn.


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