Machine Shop

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Preliminaries

Even after the ../ Preliminary Studies in Artifice, there are still more "preliminaries" - or at least topics that are going to come up often and which, if ignored, will keep one (have kept me) from doing good work.

Note also that machining is but one of several Basic Processes in artifice such as Casting, Metalsmithing, etc. For hand work as typically done in the machine shop, especially, see Fitting.

Note: Hand scraping is an intermediate case - a hand process used primarily to create machines. I'll cover it not here but in the ../ Fitting Notebooks. The finishes produced by some types of hand scraping (especially frosting and flaking) are sometimes conflated with other finishes; for a discussion of these, see the Surface Finishing Notebooks (below).

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Cutting Tool Forming and Sharpening

[NOT DONE (mostly)]

Understanding Benton's insight into the importance of removable spindles for matrix engraving.

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Collets

System Deckel Collets (for GK21, etc.) Gorton collet notes. Rivett New Style ("NS") collets; e.g. 4NS collets (used also on Gorton 375 Cutter Grinder).

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Tapers

For now, just some analytic and historical information on the now uncommon but quite beautifully designed Jarno taper.

This subject is closely related to that of collets (see above) as every collet must incorporate a taper.

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Measuring, Inspecting, Testing (by machine)

Wilder Model A Micro-Projector (Literature). Hardness Testers (Bibliography Only).

These Notebooks cover only methods using machines (of greater or lesser complexity). For measuring, inspecting, and testing with hand instruments, see ../ Basic Processes -> Fitting -> Measuring, Inspecting, and Testing.)

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General Works

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General Machine Shop Textbooks

The works collected here are older, thoroughly obsolete, and exceedingly useful.

[NOT DONE] [ICS.] [Burghardt 1st ed.] [ATS.] [Barritt and Larsen. Machine Shop Operations.] [Henry Ford.]

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Curricula

If you're learning on your own, it's good to have lists of what areas ought to be studied.

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Types of Machine Tools and Machining

Note: The emphasis here is on full-size but small-shop tools and practices. For small-scale tools and workshop practice, see ../ Horology -> Literature -> Horological Workshop Methods.

The selection of topics here will seem quite odd to some. Ornamental Turning and Rose & Straight-Line Engine Work have always been unfamiliar to most machinists. The Metalworking Shaper will be unfamiliar to modern machinists; it is considered entirely obsolete. Modern tool and die makers will find the bits on Pantograph Engraving quaint and old-fashioned. In general the complete lack of computer control for any of the tools here looks back to the 19th and early 20th centuries, not forward. The Surface Grinder, however, is not as common in hobby workshops as it should be.

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Plain Turning

That is, ordinary lathe use. It's only "plain" turning when compared to the relatively esoteric field of " ornamental turning."

Literature on specific lathes: Clausing-Colchester 13" / Colchester Master 2500. Hjorth.

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Ornamental Turning

And Rose, Straight-Line, & Brocade Engine Work (that is, Engine Turning). Their Literature.

For a discussion of the differences between Spotting and Engine Turning, see Surface Finishing -> Engine Turning vs. Spotting.

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Pantograph Engraving

(And pantographic "profile milling" and die sinking.) Links to Gorton P1-2 and New Hermes Notebooks.

For primarily non-pantographic die sinking, see Milling -> Die Sinking.

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The Metalworking Shaper

An older and more beautiful tool than the woodworking "shaper."

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Milling

Horizontal Milling. [Vertical Milling.] Die Sinking (non-pantographic).

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Surface Grinding

Reid 2-C.

Note: Surface grinding is a metal shaping operation which is employed to produce parts to particular sizes and shapes (usually very accurately). While a surface-ground part has a particular finish to it, and while that finish may in many cases be sufficient for final use, the processes of "surface finishing", which are intended to give a surface a particular finish without significant removal of material or shaping of the part, are essentially different.

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Presswork

Walsh No. 2 Spotting Press.

Of course, metalworking presses need dies, whether pantographically engraved or made by other methods of die sinking.

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Sawing by Machine

Marvel Power Hacksaw. Craftsman (Emerson) Jigsaw.

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Auxiliary Tools & Appliances

General-purpose tools and appliances used with more than one different kind of machine tool.

Setup Blocks ("1-2-3 blocks").

For tools and appliances specific to one tool, see that tool. For tools used in bench work (which may often also be used on machine tools), see Fitting.

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Surface Finishing

Processes intended to give a surface a particular finish without the significant removal of material. Identification of a number of horological and fine instrument finishes. A discussion of the distinction of Engine Turning vs. Spotting.

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Machine Tools at CircuitousRoot

Gorton 375-4 Cutter Grinder. Clausing-Colchester 13" (= Colchester Master 2500); its lubrication and its dual-reading dials. Henry Paulson & Co. Watchmaker's Lathe. Sherline Lathe. Taig Lathe. Gorton P1-2 "Pantomill" Pantograph Engraving Machine. Deckel GK 21 Universal Gravier-und-Nachformfrasmaschine. Logan ES8 Shaper. Sherline Vertical Mill. Reid 2-C Surface Grinder. Emerson Jigsaw. Horizontal Bandsaw.

Restoration Projects: Burke No. 1 [?] Horizontal Mill. Hjorth Bench Lathe. Marvel No. 2 Power Hacksaw. Steptoe 14-Inch (?) Shaper.

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