These are taken from two International Correspondence School booklets, Green Sand Molding (1901, 1903, 1915) and Machine Molding (1915) as reprinted in 1924 in volume 354 of the International Library of Technology. They all depict operations involved in the sand casting of metal.
In the first image, note the necessity of a bowler hat. The man shown is engaged in mixing or "tempering" the sand, which is perhaps the most physical of all of the jobs in this field. Still, he wears his hat.
The second image is a halftone reproduction of a photograph, not an artist's line drawing. Still, the bowler hat is there. Note also that the man has his sleeves rolled up on the inside. I've heard of this practice in other contexts (such as the Navy) where it prevents the sleeves' getting caught on things. He is wetting down the sand.
Apparently some jobs were less rigorous than shoveling sand. The man here is "tramping" the mold, to assist in the general process of ramming the sand into it. He wears neither hat nor vest. His pants are held up with a belt, not suspenders. He has no neckwear, but his collarless shirt is buttoned all the way up. His sleeves are rolled to the outside, as (I suppose) was always more common.
The next image is here mostly for the hat (or cap, in this case). The worker may in this case be a boy (and hence not yet of bowler hat wearing age?) He is shown sprinkling sand on top of a rammed flask (the bottom half of a cope-and-flask), so as to present an even surface. A bottom board will be added on top of this, and then the whole flask will be inverted to form the bottom of the mold.
Here another young man is shown "swabbing" the pattern which has been embedded into the (now inverted) flask. That is, he is putting a small amount of water around the outside of the pattern with a swab so as to facilitate the release of the pattern. Note that he wears a different cap.
In the following two images we have several views of a presumably superior class of workman preparing a smaller mold at a bench. He wears an apron (most noticeably), with suspenders (but no vest). He has no neckwear, and it looks as if his collar is integral with his shirt. This image may date from as early as 1901 or as late as 1915.
This last image doesn't really show much in the way of clothing (save for the wearning of coveralls). The man intends to use an oversize blowtorch (it is explained in exactly those terms) to dry a large mold.
These images from 1901-1915 ICS foundry texts are all in the public domain due to the expiration of their copyright. The reprints of them here remain in the public domain.
All portions of this document not noted otherwise are Copyright © 2010 by David M. MacMillan and Rollande Krandall.
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